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Center for Health Sciences
Medical Physiology - Evidence-Based Medicine
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What is EBM?

Patient Care Model
Life-long Learning
Why is EBM Important?
Available Evidence?
EBM Issues

The Well-built Question

The EBM Process
Anatomy of a Question

Finding Evidence

Selecting a Resource
Searching the Resource
Reviewing Search Results
Returning to the Patient

Evaluating Evidence

Evaluating the Validity
Validity Questions


Knowledge Test

Multiple Sclerosis
Case #2
Case #3
Case #4




Is Evidence Available?

According to G. Michaud,

"Most primary therapeutic clinical decisions in 3 general medicine services are supported by evidence from randomized controlled trials. This should be reassuring to those who are concerned about the extent to which clinical medicine is based on empirical evidence. This finding has potential for quality assurance, as exemplified by the discovery that a literature search could have potentially improved these decisions in some cases." 

(Michaud G, 1998)

The Study Data: of 145 cases and clinical decisions analyzed:

  • 31 could be supported by a randomized controlled trial 

  • 65 were supported by a head-to-head trial (not a placebo-controlled trial) 

  • 23 were supported by case-control or cohort studies 

  • 4 were supported by case series reports 

  • 22 could not be supported with a study from the literature 


We now go to EBM Issues